Cloning has been around since when Robert Briggs and Thomas King externally fertilized and developed a leopard frog using somatic cell nuclear transfer.
References Abstract Human cloning debates fall into two broad categories: Both varieties of human cloning have important legal aspects from ownership of genetic material, stem cell research, the dignity and respect for human life, reproductive rights of individuals, among other things, to the rights of potentially cloned individuals.
Two basic facts complicate the legal issues with cloning: And even though there is a general consensus about the need to ban reproductive cloning in the world community, the views concerning therapeutic cloning are varied and have complicated the legal matters internationally and in individual nations.
It is certain that regulations will continue to change at a rate slower than the biological technology. Reproductive cloning is cloning where the live birth of another individual is intended, and has been consistently opposed by all government and most individuals.
Therapeutic cloning is cloning for purposes other than the live birth of an individual, and has seen support by some governments and many individuals. UNESCO or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization which functions as a mechanism that attempts to gain universal agreements on emerging ethical issues related to science and education.
The UK has a clear prohibition on reproductive human cloning, but works to keep laws current with and relevant to technological advances.
The EU supports funding for embryonic stem cell research, but has banned human cloning. The USA has a complex mix of state and federal regulations and interlocutors often conflate the cloning issues with the abortion debate, which gives rise to strong objections to both types of cloning and to stem cell research.
On the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings. Strasbourg, Published by the Council of Europe, France http: Brazier M Regulating the reproduction business. Medical Law Review 7: Brownsword R Stem cells, superman and the report of the select committee.
Modern Law Review Science, Ethics and Public Policy. Morgan D Science, medicine and ethical change.
Oxford and Portland, OR: Robertson J Cloning as a reproductive right. The Human Cloning Debate, pp. Ruse M and Aryne S eds Cloning: Responsible Science or Technomadness?
Future Options for UN Governance.Abstract.
Tremendous debate was stirred by the announcement of the successful cloning of a sheep from a differentiated somatic cell. One result was that the National Bioethics Advisory Commission was asked by the president of the United States to report on the ethical and legal issues arising from the possibility that the cloning of humans could become a reality.
Australia has prohibited human cloning, though as of December , a bill legalizing therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives.
Within certain regulatory limits, and subject to the effect of state legislation, therapeutic cloning is now legal in some parts of Australia.
The successful cloning of 'Dolly' in further fueled talk about the possibility of human cloning. Over the years, cloning has come to mean an artificial and identical genetic copy of an existing life form.
The ethical issues with reproductive cloning include genetic damage to the clone, health risks to the mother, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life.
Human cloning debates fall into two broad categories: reproductive and therapeutic. Both varieties of human cloning have important legal aspects from ownership of genetic material, stem cell research, the dignity and respect for human life, reproductive rights of individuals, among other things, to the rights of potentially cloned individuals.
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