European colonization of the Americas There are reports of contact made before the voyages of Christopher Columbus and the age of discovery between First NationsInuit and those from other continents. Records indicate that on 24 June he sighted land at a northern location believed to be somewhere in the Atlantic provinces. Among his lieutenants was a geographer named Samuel de Champlainwho promptly carried out a major exploration of the northeastern coastline of what is now the United States. They initially failed and permanent Nova Scotian settlements were not firmly established until during the end of the Anglo-French War.
The Irish Interlude by John H. It is this Irish interlude I wish to consider, and in a rather unsystematic fashion in the course of discussion, attempt to answer the following questions: Why did the Brothers forsake England for Ireland?
Why did they choose to settle in the Lurgan area rather than somewhere else? How was it that they could take up land there, to which native Irish presumably had a prior claim?
And finally, what persuaded them to go to America? Answering this involves constructing a sort of snapshot of what was going on in the world inoutlining the relevant events leading up to that date, and where necessary, indicating what happened later.
My model for this approach is John E. The scope of my account is less ambitious, but follows a similar plan. The World in Great events were unfolding in England and the world at large during the 17th century, but my guess is that the Brothers' intellectual horizon was quite constricted, and that the great sweep of world history left them untouched, untroubled and uninterested.
At the time they were preparing to go to America, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of The first french settlements 1603 chap inand Robert LaSalle, who lost his life inwas working his way down the Ohio, Missouri and Mississippi rivers, establishing the claim of France to large tracts of territory in North America.
The Thirty Years War, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Anglo-Dutch Wars, which had raged earlier in the century, were of little concern to them, and catastrophes like the Great Plague of London in and the Great Fire the following year would have seemed quite remote.
Irish History Since we are concerned with the Brothers' sojourn in Ireland, some understanding of the story of that island is important. The ethnicity and culture of England had been repeatedly modified by invasion since Roman times, and although similar considerations apply to Ireland, remoteness has its advantage, and the native Celts were better insulated than their English neighbors from foreign influences.
The genetic makeup of the modern Irish is predominantly that of their Celtic ancestors. The Irish suffered many military defeats over the years, but the country was never subjugated to the extent that the majority of its citizens became quietly resigned to foreign rule.
The history is complicated, but for our purposes, we may summarize events this way.
The Vikings had invaded Ireland in the 9th century and then the Anglo-Normans themselves of Viking ancestry came in the 12th.
Whereas these manors continued to be tenanted by Irish peasants, there was a change in policy during the reign of Elizabethand efforts were made to import substantial numbers of English settler-tenants. The incomers for the most part lived inside the "pales" or boundaries of the cites of Waterford, Cork, Limerick, and Dublin.
Needless to say, their presence was resented by the natives, and during the Elizabethan era, there were rebellions inand During the conflict both sides practiced scorched earth tactics, and the Irish countryside was laid waste by fire, sword and famine. Following a series of military successes by the Irish, notably the Battle of the Yellow Ford, which reinforced Tyrone's reputation as a military commander, a Spanish force of men landed at Kinsale and was besieged there by the English under Lord Mountjoy.
The surviving Spaniards were repatriated, and the Earls were allowed to regain control of their lands by surrendering them to the Sovereign, who then graciously re-granted them.
By agreeing to this, the Earls acknowledged the supremacy of the Crown in the person of King James I. We may digress here to point out that traditionally, land was held by the clan as a whole; that the eldest son did not necessarily succeed his father as head of the clan; and that the native Irish were more concerned with herding their flocks and herds over a grazing area, than they were with tilling the land in a specific place.
The regrant process was done along feudal lines, with inheritance depending on primogeniture, and specific territory being allocated to specific individuals.
Peace was declared at the Treaty of Mellifont inbut Tyrone and his associates had created too many enemies for this to settle matters, and among the English authorities were those relentlessly plotting their downfall. Troops under command of the Earl of Tyrone had killed the brother of Sir Arthur Chichester during the War, and the latter, now Lord Deputy of Ireland, was engaged in a personal vendetta against the Earl of Tyrone.
By the summer of O'Neill felt that he was in imminent danger of arrest, imprisonment, and execution, and together the Earl of Tyrconnell and about a hundred others, boarded ship and fled the country.
The Ulster Plantation At the end of the 16th Century, of all the Irish Provinces, Ulster basically the northern part of the islandremained the most Celtic in tradition, laws, religion and ethnicity.
Although the number of folk who sailed with the Earls was very modest, the Flight of the Earls proved to be pivotal in Irish history because it was the catalyst that transformed Ulster into the least Irish of its Provinces. The event could be considered as the beginning of an Irish diaspora which, in later years, was to dramatically reduce the population of the Island.
The vacuum left by the departure of O'Neill and O'Donnell gave the authorities the excuse to confiscate their lands, roughly speaking the counties of Derry, Fermanagh and Armagh, and the trigger for the Plantation was the desire to neuter further threat of Irish rebellion by "planting" the escheated territory with great numbers of Scots and English dissenters.
In his capacity as King of Scotland, James was glad to see the back of many of his less law-abiding citizens, and by transporting these folk across the Irish Sea, the authorities in England and Scotland killed two birds with one stone - at a stroke they disencumbered themselves of lawless Scottish Lowlanders and troublemaking English dissenters, while establishing on the seized lands a population who would offer a rabidly Protestant bulwark against the indigenous Irish Catholic inhabitants.
As an added bonus the Crown made money by selling off large tracts of land to "undertakers".The English Civil War (–) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's yunusemremert.com first (–) and second (–) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (–) saw.
+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The Spanish Inquisition and the Expulsion from Spain in , were some of the most pivotal events in modern times.
Jewish converts penetrated to Christianity, where they could exact their revenge. Jewish Kabbalists became Christian Kabbalists. When they entered Italy, they fostered the Renaissance, and in Amsterdam, the Northern Renaissance.
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Travels and Explorations. of the Jesuit Missionaries. in New France. — THE ORIGINAL FRENCH, LATIN, AND ITALI-. Home Association Cousins ancestries & web sites Documents Genealogy by Alpheus Harlan Genealogy Data Great Trek Historical Sites History by Louis Harlan Irish Interlude Messages Name Origins of Harlan Names Upon the Land.
the world of New France: the arrival of Champlain and the first few French immigrants in and the fall of New France in Throughout this period, the fur trade in the CHAPTER 4:The First French Settlements – MHR Champlain and the Beginnings of Settlement in New France.