In this provocative, startling book, Robert D. Kaplan, the bestselling author of Monsoon and Balkan Ghosts, offers a revelatory new prism through which to view global upheavals and to understand what lies ahead for continents and countries around the world. In The Revenge of Geography, Kaplan builds on the insights, discoveries, and theories of great geographers and geop In this provocative, startling book, Robert D. In The Revenge of Geography, Kaplan builds on the insights, discoveries, and theories of great geographers and geopolitical thinkers of the near and distant past to look back at critical pivots in history and then to look forward at the evolving global scene.
The Disk of Enheduanna. Courtesy of the Penn Museum. In her poetry, Enheduanna reveals the diversity of Ishtar, including her superlative capacity for armed conflict and her ability to bring about abrupt changes in status and fortune. This ability was well suited to a goddess of love and war — both areas where swift reversals can take place, utterly changing the state of play.
In ancient love charms, her influence was invoked to win, or indeed, capture, the heart and other body parts of a desired lover. Dressed for Success Ishtar is described by herself in love poems, and by others as a beautiful, young woman. Her lover, Tammuz, compliments her on the beauty of her eyes, a seemingly timeless form of flatterywith a literary history stretching back to around BCE.
In love poetry telling of their courtship, the two have a very affectionate relationship. But like many great love stories, their union ends tragically. This ancient narrative, surviving in Sumerian and Akkadian versions both written in cuneiformwas only deciphered in the 19th Century.
Ostensibly, she is visiting her sister to mourn the death of her brother-in-law, possibly the Bull of Heaven who appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh. But the other gods in the story view the move as an attempt at a hostile takeover.
Ishtar was known for being extremely ambitious; in another myth she storms the heavens and stages a divine coup. Old Babylonian period Queen of Night relief, often considered to represent an aspect of Ishtar.
She carefully applies make-up and jewellery, and wraps herself in beautiful clothing. Ishtar is frequently described applying cosmetics and enhancing her appearance before undertaking battle, or before meeting a lover.
Much as a male warrior may put on a breast plate before a fight, Ishtar lines her eyes with mascara. Next, in a humorous scene brimming with irony, the goddess instructs her faithful handmaiden, Ninshubur, on how to behave if Ishtar becomes trapped in the netherworld.
First, Ninshubur must clothe herself in correct mourning attire, such as sackcloth, and create a dishevelled appearance. Then, she must go to the temples of the great gods and ask for help to rescue her mistress. So she devises a plan to literally strip Ishtar of her power. At each gate she is instructed to remove an item of clothing.
When she arrives before her sister, Ishtar is naked, and Ereshkigal kills her at once. Detail of ancient Mesopotamian so-called "Ishtar Vase", terracotta with cut, molded, and painted decoration, from Larsa, early 2nd millennium BC. Public Domain Her death has terrible consequences, involving the cessation of all earthly sexual intimacy and fertility.
His plot succeeds, but there is an ancient Mesopotamian saying: No one comes back from the underworld unmarked.
Ishtar is instructed to ascend with a band of demons to the upper world, and find her own replacement. In the world above, Ishtar sees Tammuz dressed regally and relaxing on a throne, apparently unaffected by her death.
Enraged, she instructs the demons to take him away with them. The Ishtar Gate to the city of Babylon, was dedicated to the Mesopotamian goddess. Reconstruction in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
Ishtar is portrayed in the myth of her Descent and elsewhere as capable of intense faithfulness: Women and vengeance proved a popular combination in the myths of ancient Greece and Rome, where powerful women such as Electra, Clytemnestra and Medea brought terrible consequences on those who they perceived as having wronged them.
This theme has continued to fascinate audiences to the present day.
Heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned, nor hell a fury like a woman scorned. Before she sees her husband relaxing after her death, Ishtar first encounters her handmaiden Ninshubur, and her two sons.
Loyalty is the main criteria Ishtar uses to choose who will replace her in the underworld. This hardly makes her faithless. Ishtar on right comes to Sargon, who would later become one of the famous kings of Mesopotamia.Ancient Eurasian Peoples.
The term "Eurasian" is indeed a vague classification, yet it is in a certain way more appropriate than other historic definitions that are as much or perhaps more vague than this. The Akkadian empire reached its apogee under Naram-Sin (r.
ca. – B.C.), and there are references to campaigns against powerful states in the north, possibly including Ebla. At its greatest extent, the empire reached as far as Anatolia in the north, inner Iran in the east, Arabia in the south, and the Mediterranean in the west. The "cultural spheres of influence" of India, China, Europe, and Islâm are founded on the World Civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language.
In India this language is Sanskrit,, which is first of all the sacred language.
Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around BC (short chronology), but Sumerian continued as a sacred language. Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Third Dynasty of Ur at approximately – BC, but the Akkadian language also remained in use.
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources.
Akkadian Empire was found around B.C.E, and conquered the land around B.C.E. They came from Northern Mesopotamia and was ruled by a great king name Sargon.
Food Supply, Art, Writing, Technology, Religion, Social Structure, and Government Officials are all apart of Akkadian lives.