Chemistry Tutorial by University of Arizona Review the basics of chemistry you'll need to know to study biology.
Multimetallic Polymerization Catalysis Research in the Agapie laboratory is targeted toward developing new, practical catalysts by using inspiration from biological systems. Some of the most fascinating catalysts in Nature display complex inorganic cofactors, sometimes in combination with organic cofactors, and perform chemical transformations water reduction and oxidation, carbon dioxide reduction, dinitrogen reduction, dioxygen reduction that are arguably prerequisites for the advance of society in the current context of limiting energy resources and environmental concerns.
Given the scale of the potential applications, we focus on studies of inexpensive and abundant first-row transition metals.
To these ends we have developed new methodologies for the synthesis of complex inorganic targets and have performed mechanistic studies to understand the properties and reactivity of these compounds.
Our research focuses on three general topics: With mixed metal oxides as catalysts for water oxidation and O2 reduction in heterogeneous and biological systems, fundamental understanding of the effects of redox inactive metals on the chemistry of mixed metal oxide clusters is important for the rational development of effective catalysts.
Prior to our work, a single high oxidation state complex displaying an oxo bridged redox active — redox inactive heterometallic core had been structurally characterized and studied for redox chemistry, though examples of in situ modulation of reactivity by metal Lewis acids had been reported.
We have developed rational strategies for the synthesis of a series of well-defined heterometallic oxide clusters that have allowed for systematic structure-property studies.
The reduction potentials of these clusters were found to depend linearly on the Lewis acidity of the redox inactive metal. This finding has applications in rationally tuning the reduction potentials of metal oxide clusters to match the thermodynamic requirements of the desired redox transformations.
Mechanistic studies have provided insights into the mechanism of cluster assembly and O- and H-atom transfer. Synthesized complexes have been studied by collaborators for spectroscopic benchmarking relative to the biological system.
In the context of small molecule activation, the ability of protein active sites to transfer electrons and protons is instrumental for selectivity and high reaction rates. We have developed new molecular architectures for multimetallic complexes of redox active metals and monometallic complexes of non-innocent ligands.
Although non-innocent ligands have often been employed to transfer electrons or protons, pendant groups that transfer both are relatively rare, despite the biological precedent.
Moieties such as catechol and hydroquinone are envisioned to act as reservoirs of both electrons and protons, if placed in proximity of metals orthogonally to the arene plane. Toward that end, hemi-labile arene ligands with pendant donors have been employed for their versatility and potential to lower reaction barriers by accommodating several metal binding modes.
New types of bimetallic reactivity C-C coupling with Nicatalysts Mo catalyzed ammonia-borane dehydrogenationand mechanistic insights metal mediated aryl C-O bond activation, H-transfer to arene have been achieved. The functionalized versions of these systems, with catechol and hydroquinone moieties, bind metals while retaining the protonated state.
Therefore, they can deliver not only electrons, but also protons to substrates such as O2, clearly showing the potential of such motifs for metal mediated multi-electron and multi-proton chemistry.
The insertion polymerization of polar monomers has been a significant challenge in polyolefin synthesis. Bimetallic catalysts have been proposed as candidates to address this problem, but the molecular design of many of the known systems has provided limited insight into the reaction mechanism due to high flexibility or distant placement of metals.The Ellington lab is an idea factory, where your ideas are welcome.
Throughout its existence, the Ellington Lab has generated impactful new technologies and approaches. In your lab work for this lesson, you will make observations comparing the reactivities of some of the elements by observing the reactions of a few.
The sections on this page pertain directly to . In some cases, a reaction was observed. For example, gas formations, bubbles, fizzy, or color change.
The metals from Table 2 were compared to each other in order to create an activity series.
Table 1: Metal reactions with HCl acid with observations and net ionic equations. Theodor Agapie was born in in Bucharest, Romania. He received his yunusemremert.com degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in and his Ph.D. . Description: This lab deals with the activity series of metals.
Objectives include. 1) Observe the reactivity of common metals.
2) Be able to predict the products of a single replacement reaction between a metal and an acid. From 1 and 2, the relative activities are Pb Cu Ag. 8. K Mg (KCl Mg produce no reaction) 7. Na Mg (NaCl Mg produce no reaction) 6.
Mg Zn (ZnCl2 Mg produce a reaction) 5. Mg Zn (MgCl2 Zn produce no reaction) 4. Zn Pb [Pb(NO3)2 Zn produce a reaction] 3. Zn Cu (CuSO4 Zn produce a reaction) 2.
Cu Ag (AgNO3 Cu produce a reaction) 1.