Living, I despise what melancholy fate has brought us wretches in these evil years. Long before my birth time smiled and may again, for once there was, and yet will be, more joyful days. But in this middle age time's dregs sweep 'round us, and we bend beneath a heavy load of vice.
Irritated by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar who was reported to have preached to the faithful that the purchase of a letter of indulgence… The granting of indulgences was predicated on two beliefs. From the early church onward, bishops could reduce or dispense with the rigours of penances, but indulgences emerged in only the 11th and 12th centuries when the idea of purgatory took widespread hold and when the popes became the activist leaders of the reforming church.
Papal pronouncements, oral and written, were often vague, however, and raised many questions among the pious.
To clarify all these issues, the Scholastic theologians of the 12th and 13th centuries worked out a fully articulated theory of penance. It consisted of three parts: The debt of forgiven sin could be reduced through the performance of good works in this life pilgrimages, charitable acts, and the like or through suffering in purgatory.
Indulgences could be granted only by popes or, to a lesser extent, archbishops and bishops as ways of helping ordinary people measure and amortize their remaining debt.
People naturally wanted to know how much debt was forgiven just as modern students want to know exactly what they need to study for examinationsso set periods of days, months, and years came gradually to be attached to different kinds of partial indulgences.
One did not, however, have to do it all by oneself. Medieval Christianity was a vast community of mutual help through prayer and good works, uniting the living and the dead in the Church Militant on earth, the Church Suffering in purgatory, and the Church Triumphant in heaven.
The good works of Jesus Christthe saints, and others could be drawn upon to liberate souls from purgatory. In Pope Clement VI decreed that all these good works were in the Treasury of Meritover which the pope had control.
This highly complicated theological system, which was framed as a means to help people achieve their eternal salvationeasily lent itself to misunderstanding and abuse as early as the 13th century, much sooner than is usually thought.
A principal contributing factor was money. Paralleling the rise of indulgences, the Crusadesand the reforming papacy was the economic resurgence of Europe that began in the 11th century.
Part of this tremendous upsurge was the phenomenon of commutation, through which any services, obligations, or goods could be converted into a corresponding monetary payment.
Those eager to gain plenary indulgences, but unable to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, wondered whether they might perform an alternative good work or make an equivalent offering to a charitable enterprise—for example, the building of a leprosarium or a cathedral.
Churchmen allowed such commutation, and the popes even encouraged it, especially Innocent III reigned — in his various Crusading projects.
From the 12th century onward the process of salvation was therefore increasingly bound up with money. And as the papacy weakened in this period, secular governments increasingly allowed the granting of indulgences only in return for a substantial share of the yield, often as much as two-thirds.
The princes got most of the money, and the popes got most of the blame. People also wondered whether they could gain an indulgence for someone who had died and was presumed to be in purgatory. If so, in acting out of charity for someone else, were they then obliged to confess their own sins, as they would if they sought to obtain an indulgence for themselves?
Although these concerns were surfacing as early as the 13th century, it was only in that Pope Sixtus IV declared that one could indeed gain an indulgence for someone in purgatory. Sixtus, however, left unanswered the problem of the necessity of personal confession.
This profound uncertainty surrounding penance threatened to sever completely the nexus between the confession of sin and the achievement of salvation.
That is precisely what happened in the early 16th century. He was not as is widely thought moved originally to a critique of the system by these abuses but rather by his own terrible spiritual suffering.
In any case, he drew up a devastating document, the Ninety-five Theses of October In number 82 he blew the lid off the system. Why does not the pope liberate everyone from Purgatory for the sake of love a most holy thing and because of the supreme necessity of their souls?
This would be morally the best of reasons. Meanwhile he redeems innumerable souls for money, a most perishable thing, with which to build St.
With this blast, Luther began to knock down the house of cards, and by he came to the full realization of his immensely liberating theological message: Virtually all forms of Protestantism would reject all or most of the penitential system, including indulgences.Thank you for visiting our site.
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A U.N.-sponsored agency has put Guatemala’s former President Otto Pérez Molina and much of its political elite behind bars, in one of the most sweeping corruption-crackdowns ever. The “rotteness” of the Roman Catholic Church was at the heart of Martin Luther’sattack on it in when he wrote the “95 Theses” thus sparking off the German Reformation..
In the Roman Catholic Church was all powerful in western Europe.
There was no legal alternative. We claim all economic systems to be under the judgment of God no less than other facets of the created order. Therefore, we recognize the responsibility of governments to develop and implement sound fiscal and monetary policies that provide for the economic life of individuals and corporate entities and that ensure full employment and adequate incomes with a minimum of inflation.
The word indulgence (Latin indulgentia, from indulgeo, to be kind or tender) originally meant kindness or favor; in post-classic Latin it came to mean the remission of a tax or yunusemremert.com Roman law and in the Vulgate of the Old Testament (Isaiah ) it was used to express release from captivity or yunusemremert.com theological language also the word is sometimes employed in its primary sense to.