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Find articles by Amanda J. Brown Find articles by Wendy Y. Received Aug 18; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Introduction Dog breeds are a consequence of artificial selection for specific attributes.
These closed genetic populations have metabolic and physiological characteristics that may be revealed by metabolomic analysis. Objectives To identify and characterise the drivers of metabolic differences in the fasted plasma metabolome and then determine metabolites differentiating breeds.
Methods Fasted plasma samples were collected from dogs maintained under two environmental conditions controlled and client-owned at home. Non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting was performed using flow infusion electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry which was coupled with multivariate data analysis.
Metadata factors including age, gender, sexual status, weight, diet and breed were investigated. Results Breed differences were identified in the plasma metabolome of dogs housed in a controlled environment.
Triplicate samples from two breeds identified intra-individual variability, yet breed separation was still observed. The main drivers of variance in dogs maintained in the home environment were associated with breed and gender.
Furthermore, metabolite signals were identified that discriminated between Labrador Retriever and Cocker Spaniels in both environments. Conclusion Metabolite fingerprinting of plasma samples can be used to investigate breed differences in client-owned dogs, despite added variance of diet, sexual status and environment.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Metabolomics, Plasma, Metabolite fingerprinting, Multivariate data analysis, Intra-breed variability, Inter-breed variability Introduction As a consequence of selective breeding for novel and desirable traits the domestic dog Canis familiaris exhibits characteristic diversity in morphology, physiology and behaviour Belyaev ; Wayne Initially, this led to the formation of distinct functional classes such as herding, hunting and guarding.
Traits were then developed through restricted breeding programmes and have since been modified through pedigree breeding standards Sutter et al. A by-product of this closed population structure and process has been that many dog breeds suffer from a high incidence of inherited disorders Cruz et al.
It is likely that other, more subtle and unintentional consequences of selective breeding may have resulted in additional changes to metabolic regulation that may impact on the plasma metabolite fingerprint of different dog breeds. The process of metabolite fingerprinting is based on hypothesis-free, non-targeted and unbiased measurements Draper et al.
These often provide only relative quantification and aim to detect as many components in the sample as possible. Currently, global metabolite profiling and fingerprinting are achieved using high-content analytical platforms, such as 1H nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry MS.
The latter can be used for profiling via direct infusion DI or flow infusion FI of samples or extracts, or coupled to a chromatographic or electrophoretic separation [i.
One of the strengths of this type of data-driven approach is that it enables investigations of complex, nonlinear, interactive multivariate systems which are difficult to control or where no clear hypothesis exists Kell and Oliver Urine may not be the most suitable sample to characterize breed differences Beckmann et al.
Previously, the plasma metabolome has provided data relevant to specific metabolic adaptations of species and also has identified differences between individuals Allaway et al. However, these data were derived from studies undertaken under controlled environmental conditions.
It is likely that to achieve accurate interpretation of metabolomics data from client-owned dogs, future study designs will need to factor the major drivers of variance in the metabolome.
The primary aim of this current study was to use a large-scale non-targeted metabolomic approach to investigate the main drivers of intra- and inter- breed variation under different conditions controlled diet and environment versus variable diet and in-home environments. The client-owned dog study involved 96 dogs from 9 breeds living at home and recruited with owner consent.
These dogs were maintained on different diets and fed according to their owners feeding regimen and amounts. Blood was taken on one occasion for all breeds except for LR and Be, where for some individuals three separate fasted blood samples were collected at different time-points over several months see electronic supplementary material S3 for dog details.
When comparing the 9 breeds single plasma samples from individuals were analysed and where triplicates were available, the first collected sample was chosen see S7 for structure and workflow of the studies described here. Collection and analysis of metadata Metadata were collected for the client-owned dog study UNE to characterize the individual dogs and aid interpretation of inter- and intra- individual differences in metabolomic profiles electronic supplementary material S2.Thus, there was some overlap, with dachshund, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, German shepherd dog, cocker spaniel, Jack Russell terrier and Yorkshire terrier appearing on both lists.
However, clearly there was a difference in breed distribution across the two populations. The former (n = 33) consisted of three breeds (Labrador Retriever, Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Schnauzer) fed a single diet batch, the latter (n = 96), client-owned dogs consisted of 9 breeds (Beagle, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, Golden Retriever, Greyhound, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever and Maltese) consuming various .
variability in the plasma metabolome of dogs Abstract Introduction Dog breeds are a consequence of artiﬁcial selection for speciﬁc attributes.
These closed genetic pop-ulations have metabolic and physiological characteristics breeds (Beagle, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, Golden Retriever, Greyhound, German Shepherd, Labrador.
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Introduction and objectives The purpose of this study was Dachshund, Golden Retriever, Greyhound, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever and Maltese: 7–12 dogs per breed).
Metabolite profiling on a MTBE lipid extract of fasted plasma was per- allowing direct comparison of plasma profiles, prior to signal annotation. Principal Component.