Chapter 6 Summary Aristotle now narrows his focus to examine tragedy exclusively.
In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones whether friction is ignored, or not and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium.
Four causes Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: His term aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.
Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino.
It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole i. Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being.
A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs.
In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve.
This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition. History of optics Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problemsbook The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.
Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous".
History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations. Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings.
He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos. He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus.
His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense.
It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed. Among these correct predictions are the following.
Brood size decreases with adult body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young usually just one per brood than a mouse. Lifespan increases with gestation periodand also with body mass, so that elephants live longer than mice, have a longer period of gestation, and are heavier.Definition.
English novelist E. M. Forster described plot as the cause-and-effect relationship between events in a story. According to Forster, "The king died, and then the queen died, is a story, while The king died, and then the queen died of grief, is a plot."Consider the following: The prince searches for Cinderella with the glass shoe; Cinderella's sisters tried the shoe on but it does.
Poetics (Penguin Classics) [Aristotle, Malcolm Heath] on yunusemremert.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Essential reading for all students of Greek theatre and literature, and equally stimulating for anyone interested in literature In the Poetics.
Aristotle: Politics. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle ( B.C.E.) describes the happy life intended for man by nature as one lived in accordance with virtue, and, in his Politics, he describes the role that politics and the political community must play in bringing about the virtuous life in the citizenry.
The Politics also provides analysis of the kinds of political community that. Apr 02, · In the Poetics, Aristotle's famous study of Greek dramatic art, Aristotle ( B.C.) compares tragedy to such other metrical forms as comedy and epic.
He determines that tragedy, like all poetry, is a kind of imitation (mimesis), but adds that it has a serious purpose and uses direct action.
From the Poetics: Aristotle’s Ideas About Tragedy Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers of Ancient Greece. A philosopher looks for ideal forms, and tries to explain the nature of reality.
The search for ideal forms led Aristotle to explore many subjects. For Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and its end is a mode of action, not a quality. Now character determines men's qualities, but it is by their actions that they are happy or the reverse.